Conjectures And Refutations PDF Download

Conjectures and Refutations PDF
Author: Karl Popper
Publisher: Routledge
Size: 20.73 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 608
View: 6427

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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Conjectures And Refutations PDF Download

Conjectures and Refutations PDF
Author: Karl R. Popper
Publisher: Psychology Press
Size: 42.91 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Knowledge, Theory of
Languages : en
Pages : 431
View: 5163

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The way in which knowledge progresses, and especially our scientific knowledge, is by unjustified (and unjustifiable) anticipations, by guesses, by tentative solutions to our problems, by conjectures. These conjectures are controlled by criticism: that is, by attempted refutations, which include severely critical tests. They may survive these tests; but they can never be positively justified: they can neither be established as certainly true nor even as 'probable' (in the sense of the probability calculus). Criticism of our conjectures is of decisive importance: by bringing out our mistakes it makes us understand the difficulties of the problems which we try to solve. This is how we become better acquainted with our problem, and able to propose more mature solutions: the very refutation of a theory - that is, of a tentative solution to our problem - is always a step forward that takes us nearer the truth. And this is how we can learn from our mistakes. As we learn from our mistakes our knowledge grows, even though we may never know - that is, know for certain. Since our knowledge can grow, there can be no reason here for despair of reason. And since we can never know for certain, the can be no authority here for any claim to authority, for conceit over our knowledge, or for smugness. The essays and lectures of which this book is composed apply this thesis to many topics, ranging from problems of the philosophy and history of the physical and social sciences to historical and political problems.

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Author: Karl R. Popper
Publisher:
Size: 43.23 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Social sciences
Languages : uk
Pages : 184
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The Scientific Attitude PDF Download

The Scientific Attitude PDF
Author: Lee McIntyre
Publisher: Mit Press
Size: 46.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 296
View: 1352

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Attacks on science have become commonplace. Claims that climate change isn't settled science, that evolution is "only a theory," and that scientists are conspiring to keep the truth about vaccines from the public are staples of some politicians' rhetorical repertoire. In this book, Lee McIntyre argues that what distinguishes science from its rivals is what he calls "the scientific attitude"-caring about evidence and being willing to change theories on the basis of new evidence. The history of science is littered with theories that were scientific but turned out to be wrong; the scientific attitude reveals why even a failed theory can help us to understand what is special about science. He describes the transformation of medicine from a practice based largely on hunches into a science based on evidence; considers scientific fraud; and examines the positions of ideology-driven denialists, pseudoscientists, and "skeptics" who reject scientific findings. The scientific attitude, McIntyre explains, offers a uniquely powerful tool in the defense of science. Book jacket.

Defense Of The Scientific Hypothesis PDF Download

Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis PDF
Author: Bradley Alger
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Size: 20.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 448
View: 7642

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Defense of Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data sets out to explain and defend the scientific hypothesis. Alger's mission is to counteract the misinformation and misunderstanding about the hypothesis that even seasoned scientists have concerning its nature and place in modern science. Most biological scientists receive little or no formal training in scientific thinking. Further, the hypothesis is under attack by critics who claim that it is irrelevant to science. In order to appreciate and evaluate scientific controversies like global climate change, vaccine safety, etc., the public first needs to understand the hypothesis. Defense of Scientific Hypothesis begins by describing and analyzing the scientific hypothesis in depth and examining its relationships to various kinds of science. Alger then guides readers through a review of the hypothesis in the context of the Reproducibility Crisis and presents survey data on how scientists perceive and employ hypotheses. He assesses cognitive factors that influence our ability to use the hypothesis and makes practical and policy recommendations for teaching and learning about it. Finally, Alger considers two possible futures of the hypothesis in science as the Big Data revolution looms: in one scenario, the hypothesis is displaced by the Big Data Mindset that forgoes understanding in favor of correlation and prediction. In the other, robotic science incorporates the hypotheses into mechanized laboratories guided by artificial intelligence. But in his illuminating epilogue, Alger envisions a third way, the Centaur Scientist, a symbiotic relationship between human scientists and computers.

Conjectures Et R Futations PDF Download

Conjectures et r  futations PDF
Author: Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher:
Size: 52.55 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Knowledge, Theory of
Languages : fr
Pages : 610
View: 1873

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Comment la connaissance scientifique progresse-t-elle ? grâce à l'erreur. Des conjectures sont tout d'abord formées : on devine, on essaie des solutions. Puis ces conjectures sont soumises à la critique, c'est-à-dire à des tentatives de réfutation : on les teste. Dès qu'une théorie est réfutée, un progrès a été accompli, qui nous rapproche de la vérité ? Mais pourrons-nous jamais atteindre celle-ci. ? Conjectures et réfutations contient l'essentiel de la philosophie de Karl R. Popper (1902-1997) et prolonge, en la complétant par de nouveaux développements, sa célèbre Logique de la découverte scientifique.

New Scientist PDF Download

New Scientist PDF
Author:
Publisher:
Size: 66.13 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 56
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New Scientist magazine was launched in 1956 "for all those men and women who are interested in scientific discovery, and in its industrial, commercial and social consequences". The brand's mission is no different today - for its consumers, New Scientist reports, explores and interprets the results of human endeavour set in the context of society and culture.

Proofs And Refutations PDF Download

Proofs and Refutations PDF
Author: Imre Lakatos
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Size: 15.77 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 174
View: 1986

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Proofs and Refutations is essential reading for all those interested in the methodology, the philosophy and the history of mathematics. Much of the book takes the form of a discussion between a teacher and his students. They propose various solutions to some mathematical problems and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of these solutions. Their discussion (which mirrors certain real developments in the history of mathematics) raises some philosophical problems and some problems about the nature of mathematical discovery or creativity. Imre Lakatos is concerned throughout to combat the classical picture of mathematical development as a steady accumulation of established truths. He shows that mathematics grows instead through a richer, more dramatic process of the successive improvement of creative hypotheses by attempts to 'prove' them and by criticism of these attempts: the logic of proofs and refutations.

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Author: Ivan Gavrilovich Gerasimov
Publisher:
Size: 39.27 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Knowledge, Theory of
Languages : ru
Pages : 215
View: 455

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Telos PDF Download

Telos PDF
Author:
Publisher:
Size: 56.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 5683

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